The Theodolite

 The TheodoliteIntroduction:Altheore is a device for measuring angles is known for a long time ago did not change his theory so far, which is a horizontal circular protractor divided to 360 and is listed in the form of an arc in the center moves Alaledad a circular motion and the group are all mounted on a holder. Altheore and the name most likely derived from the word of Arab origin accurately.The first of a new industry for Theore was in England in the seventeenth century by Ram Ram sden sedan is still the first two machines Astamla be found in the Science Museum in London and the Royal Society.The Altheore more accurate devices used to measure angles, angles, whether horizontal or vertical angles and therefore used in all processes that need to survey the accuracy of large meteorological and astronomical observations, such as trigonometric networks is also used to measure the angles of the polygon and the planning and guidance minute.Altheore devices have evolved in recent years developed rapidly after that was Altheore with a vernier and a micrometer Altheore P Altheore photosynthesis, is now digital and electronic Altheore Theore laser, a device Altheore possible to measure the horizontal and vertical angles and distances as well as electronically.
Altheore installation:Altheore generally consists of two main parts, namely:· The top - and called Alaledad which carries the horizontal axis and the vertical circle and the telescope.· The bottom - includes a base portion fixed to the device and holds screws in three settlement sandwiched between circular disks.· And between the upper and lower horizontal circle there.The three parts (upper and lower horizontal circle) are free in movement around the vertical axis and communicate with each other by two types of screws movement are:· Group movement connecting the upper horizontal circle one of the fast movement and the other is slow.· Set the horizontal circle connecting them to the bottom of the movement of the fast and the other is slow.The following is an explanation of the parts in detail:
First, the upper part:1. Alaledad: It is a moored carriers carrying the rotation axis of the telescope and the two screws on the base Alhamlan circular prove the measurement marks on one of Qtreha, declaration of this rule is the balance of the settlement of a cylinder and bottom of the cone determines prove the rotation axis Alaledad notes the following:· The rotation axis of the telescope perpendicular to the axis of rotation Alaledad.· Alaledad rotation axis perpendicular to the cylindrical axis of the balance of the settlement g· Alaledad rotation axis perpendicular to the center of rotation of the horizontal circle.
2. Telescope: the telescope and installed on the longitudinal axis is called the rotation axis of the telescope should be noted the following:· Must be a full course surrounds the telescope on its axis.· Line of sight in the telescope is made during the roll axis on the plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis direction.The telescope consists of the following:A. Lens Hiih combined give the goal of the observed image of the fact that moderate or inverted mini, and usually consist of a set of lenses converged so as to avoid some of the errors associated with the lens of each, and cover the objective lens special material to protect it from dust and reduce the rate of reversible light.B. Pregnant hairs: It is a small disk of transparent glass and prove it and two lines perpendicular Mtnahin in accuracy, and are installed on the glass disk, either by drilling or photography.And the holder of hairs is of great importance in the telescope because it determines the spatial line of sight we use to receive guidance and target image appropriation. And different forms of lines shown on the glass disk according to the purpose of the use of the endoscope. The point of intersection is the point that hairs in the center of the disc resulting from the intersection of the horizontal and vertical Alhartin.C. Eyepiece: lens consists of a vehicle to avoid some mistakes of individual lenses and are usually a small diameter hole commensurate with the pupil, and placed eyepiece holder of the hairs at less then the focal length to form a magnified image of a moderate estimate.D. Lens of the application: a dispersed inside the telescope lens between the objective lens and the holder of hairs and relate this lens screw application to move it until we get the equivalent focal length for the application of the target image at the level of the observed carrier hairs.
Second, the horizontal circle:Horizontal circle made of glass and is the work of the division has a very precise and tight on the glass material and can be measured accurately and therefore Voqtar horizontal circles have no more than ten centimeters, and possible to read part of the ten second of it.
Third rule:A stator which is a system of three screws of the settlement sandwiched between circular disks, the disk to install Alaledad the upper and the lower disk is to install the device on the cradle.

Conditions set Altheore:The control devices of the utmost importance that the observer must be able to test the device that works even does not work and his defective or an error leads to wrong results. And conditions set Altheore divided into two main sections are:
1. Conditions of the provisional seizure:Are conditions that are more promising device for the monitoring and measurement, whether horizontal or vertical angles and ends of these conditions to lift the device from the place of monitoring, steps can be summarized as follows:· Altasamt centeringHe put the device so that the position or along the vertical axis, which is appointed by the age of Alhagul hanging above the wedge and make a Altasamt follow the following steps:1. Put the device over the carrier close to the center of the dowel with the individual legs so that the height of the device appropriately.2. Move the two divisions of the people of legs to stand inside or outside the country for the movement of the dowel so that the device horizontally over the point, using Altasamt photosynthesis.· Horizontal deviceThis is done to make the balance of the settlement longitudinal your circuit horizontal parallel to any two nails of screws settlement of the three, and manage these two screws together either in or out until proven in the middle of its course, and then make the balance of the settlement vertically positioned first, and move the screw the third to become a bubble in the middle of its course and repeat the action until it bubble in the middle of its course.· Application (focusing)We telescope toward the goal of light-colored or white paper to move the kind and until the holder of hairs clearly in this case, we find a picture holder hairs located on the bottom of the eye, apply the target image consisting of object-oriented hairs stand on a nail by the application.

2. Terms of setting permanent TheoreTheore of four main axes either parallel or perpendicular to each other is that it is based Altheore his theory. To be exact Altheore in case a permanent sound and must achieve Altheore conditions following on the following order:· Must be perpendicular vertical axis (the axis line Alhagul Altheore commentator at the base) with the horizontal axis of the balance of linear settlement located between the carriers of the Alracien Oledad.· Must be perpendicular line of sight (the center line of your application laparoscopic) with the horizontal axis of rotation of the telescope.· Must be perpendicular axis of rotation of the telescope horizontal with the vertical axis.· Must be the horizontal axis of the zero circle anchored parallel to the axis line of sight when it is horizontally.
Defects that can not be adjusted and corrected:Often arise from the industry and not readily corrected only in the factory, and these defects:· Unstable parts Altheore when parts of the movement of any lack of flexibility.· Lack of rotation of the circular motion just cause irregular rotation axis vertical sector.· Unequal staging on a circle of horizontal and vertical.
Reserves to be taken when monitoring Baltheore to increase accuracy and to avoid some mistakes mechanism· Measure the angles in Alodaaan Mutaiamn and Mutaiasr and taking average of the two results.· Taking observations on several arcs by the precision required in order to partition the error vanishing edge horizontal.· Observations taken from right to left and the other half from left to right in order to avoid measurement error as a result of twisting the device or holder as a result of the heat.Method of measuring horizontal anglesTo measure the horizontal angle or horizontal angles at a given point in general the basic Steps that are made in all cases are as follows:· Keep the device on the station and the processes taking place Altasamt and horizontal.· Put the pillars above the pegs, which we'll apply it, and take into account that the pillar above the point entirely, as it should be anchored at the monitoring well and monitoring is a possible point on the bottom of the pillar.As for the methods of measuring horizontal angles are different ways depending on the accuracy of monitoring, depending on the purpose for which and depending on the equipment and resources available, and different methods can be summarized in the following:
First: how repetition The Repetitions MethodSecond, the way trends Direction MethodWay trends Direction MethodAnd where angles are measured in the direction the telescope on the first point and then reset the device and then we monitor the second point and the angle between the two readers, and so whatever the number of angles.And monitoring of the corner is the one to follow the following steps:1. Prove Altheore over the observatory and the processes taking place Altasamt and horizontal.2. Our guidance on the goals the bottom of the heel pillar and reset the device when the device is Mthiamn.3. After the completion of monitoring the target, we run the telescope on the horizontal axis 180 Nfah on its axis vertical becomes a circle anchored to the left of the observer (the machine has become Mthiasr) and record readings in the box Mutaiasr target observed and here we note that the readings obtained in the situation Mutaiasr are the same in the situation Mutaiamn plus approximately 180.4. Take the average value of angles and conclude the final

ليست هناك تعليقات:

إرسال تعليق